Glossary of Grammatical Terms

Мини-словарь специальных терминов английской грамматики. Полезен для понимания правил, которые неизбежно используют профессиональную лексику.



abstract noun (абстрактное существительное)a noun used to describe a quality, idea, or experience rather than something physical or concrete; e.g. joy, size, language. Compare with concrete noun.
active (действительный)used for describing verb phrases such as gives, and has made, where the subject is the person or thing doing the action or responsible for the action. Compare with passive.
adjectival clause (определительное придаточное предложение)another name for relative clause.
adjective (прилагательное)a word used to tell you more about a thing, such as its appearance, colour, size, or other qualities; e.g.… a pretty blue dress.
adverb (наречие)a word that gives more information about when, how, where, or in what circumstances something happens; e.g. quickly, now. There are several different kinds of adverb; adverbs of degree, manner, place, time, duration, and frequency. There are also focusing adverbs.
adverbial (наречный)a word or combination of words added to a clause to give more information about time, place, or manner. See also sentence adverbial and sentence connector.
adverb of degree (наречие степени)an adverb indicating the amount or extent of a feeling or quality; e.g. extremely.
adverb / adverbial of duration (наречие времени)an adverb or adverbial indicating how long something lasts; e.g. briefly, for a long time.
adverb / adverbial of frequency (частотное наречие)an adverb or adverbial indicating how often something happens; e.g. often, once a week.
adverb of manner (наречие образа действия)an adverb indicating the way in which something happens or is done; e.g. carefully.
adverb of place (наречие места)an adverb that gives more information about position or direction; e.g. Move closer.
adverb particle (наречная частица)an adverb used as part of a phrasal verb; e.g. hide out, sit up, turn round.
affirmative (утвердительное предложение)not containing a negative word. Also called positive.
agent (исполнитель)another name for performer.
agreement (согласование)the relationship between a subject and its verb, or between a number or determiner and its noun; e.g. I look/she looksone bell/three bells. Also called concord.
apostrophe san ending (’s) added to a noun to mark possession; e.g.… Harriet’s daughterthe professor’s husbandthe Managing Director’s secretary.
article (артикль)see definite article, indefinite article.
aspect (вид)the use of verb forms to show whether an action is continuing, repeated, or finished.
attributive (определительный)used for describing the position of adjectives when they are used in front of a noun. Compare with predicative.
auxiliary verb (вспомогательный глагол)one of the verbs be, have, and do when they are used with a main verb to make verb forms, negatives, questions, and so on. Also called auxiliary. Modals are also auxiliary verbs.
bare infinitive (инфинитив без частицы «to»)another name for infinitive without to.
base form (базовая форма)the form of a verb that has no letters added to the end and is not a past form; e.g. walk, go, have, be. The base form is the form you look up in a dictionary.
broad negative (косвенное отрицание)one of a small group of adverbs including barely and seldom which are used to make a statement almost negative; e.g. I barely knew her.
cardinal number (количественное числительное)a number used for counting; e.g. one, seven, nineteen.
classifying adjective (прилагательное происхождения)an adjective used to identify something as being of a particular type; e.g. Indian, wooden, mental. They do not have comparatives or superlatives. Compare with qualitative adjective.
clause (придаточное предложение)a group of words containing a verb. See also main clause and subordinate clause.
clause of manner (придаточное образа действия)a subordinate clause that describes the way in which something is done, usually introduced with as or like; e.g. She talks like her mother used to.
collective noun (собирательное имя существительное)a noun that refers to a group of people or things; e.g. committee, team.
colour adjective (прилагательное цвета)an adjective referring to a colour; e.g. red, blue, scarlet.
common noun (имя нарицательное)a noun used to refer to a person, thing, or substance; e.g. sailor, computer, glass. Compare with proper noun.
comparative (сравнительная степень)an adjective or adverb with -er on the end or more in front of it; e.g. friendlier, more important, more carefully.
complement (именное словосочетание или прилагательное после глагола, к которому относится)a noun phrase or adjective that comes after a linking verb such as be, and gives more information about the subject or object of the clause; e.g. She is a teacher, She is tired, They made her chairperson.
complex sentence (сложное предложение)a sentence consisting of two or more main clauses linked by a subordinating conjunction; e.g. We went inside when it started to rain.
compound (сложное слово)a combination of two or more words functioning as a unit. For example, self-centred and free-style are compound adjectives, bus stop and state of affairs are compound nouns, and dry-clean and roller-skate are compound verbs.
compound sentence (сложносочиненное предложение)a sentence consisting of two or more main clauses linked by a coordinating conjunction; e.g. They picked her up and took her into the house.
concessive clause (уступительное придаточное предложение)a subordinate clause, usually introduced by although or while, that contrasts with a main clause; e.g. Although I like her, I find her hard to talk to.
concord (согласование)another name for agreement.
concrete noun (имя существительное, выражающее конкретное понятие)a noun that refers to something we can touch or see; e.g. table, dress, flower. Compare with abstract noun.
conditional clause (условное придаточное предложение)a subordinate clause usually starting with if. The event described in the main clause depends on the condition described in the subordinate clause; e.g. If it rains, we’ll go to the cinemaThey would be rich if they had taken my advice.
conjunction (союз)a word linking together two clauses, phrases, or words. There are two types of conjunction — coordinating conjunctions, which link parts of a sentence of the same grammatical type (and, but, or), and subordinating conjunctions, which begin subordinate clauses (although, when).
continuous (длительная форма глагола)another name for progressive.
contraction (стяженная форма)a shortened form in which an auxiliary verb and not, or a subject and an auxiliary verb, are joined together and function as one word; e.g. aren’t, she’s.
coordinate clause (часть сложносочиненного предложения)a clause that is connected to another clause with a coordinating conjunction such as and or but; e.g. He fell and broke his leg.
coordinating conjunction (соединительный союз)a word such as and, but, or or which joins together two clauses, phrases, or words of the same grammatical type.
copula (глагол-связка)a name sometimes used to refer to the verb be. In this grammar, the term linking verb is used.
countable noun (исчисляемое существительное)a noun that can be singular or plural; e.g. dog/dogs, lemon/lemons, foot/feet. Also called count noun.
declarative (повествовательный)a clause in the declarative form has the subject followed by the verb. Most statements are made in the declarative form. Also called indicative.
defining non-finite clause (определительный нефинитный оборот)a participle clause that is placed after a noun phrase to identify the person or thing you are talking about; e.g. The girl wearing the red hat.
defining relative clause (ограничительное придаточное относительное)a relative clause that identifies the person or thing that is being talked about; e.g. I wrote down everything that she said.
definite article (определенный артикль)the determiner ‘the’.
delexical verb (глагол, малозначимый сам по себе)a verb that has very little meaning in itself and is used with an object that carries the main meaning of the structure. Give, have, and take are commonly used as delexical verbs; e.g. She gave a small cry… I’ve had a bath.
demonstrative (указательное местоимение)one of the words this, that, these, and those used in front of a noun; e.g.… this woman… that tree. They are also used as pronouns; e.g. That looks nice… This is fun.
dependent clause (зависимое предложение)another name for subordinate clause.
definite determiner (конкретное определяющее слово)one of a groups of determiners including the, that and your which you use when the person you are speaking to understands which person or thing you are talking about; e.g. the old man, my ideas.
determiner (определяющее слово)one of a group of words including the, a, some, and my which are used at the beginning of a noun phrase.
direct object (прямое дополнение)a noun phrase referring to a person or thing affected by an action, in a sentence with an active verb; e.g. She wrote her name…. I shut the windows.
direct speech (прямая речь)speech reported in the words actually spoken by someone, without any changes in tense, person, and so on.
ditransitive verb (двухобъектный переходный глагол)a verb such as give, take, or sell which can have both an indirect and a direct object; e.g. She gave me a kiss.
dynamic verb (глагол действия)a verb such as run, give or slice which describes an action. Compare with stative verb.
-ed adjective (прилагательное с окончанием «-ed»)an adjective that ends in -ed, and usually has the same form as the -ed participle of a verb, or is formed by adding -ed to a noun; e.g. a worried lookskilled workers. Adjectives that do not end in -ed but have the same forms as irregular -ed participles are also called -ed adjectives; e.g. a broken bone.
-ed participle (причастие с окончанием «-ed»)a verb form such as walked or played, which is used to make perfect forms and passives, or in some cases an adjective. Irregular participles such as given and broken are also called -ed participles because they behave like regular -ed participles. Also called past participle.
ellipsis (пропуск члена высказывания, легко восстановимого в данном речевом контексте)when you leave out words because they are obvious from the context.
emphasizing adjective (усилительное прилагательное)an adjective such as complete, utter or total which stresses how strongly you feel about something; e.g. I feel a complete fool.
ergative verb (глагол, могущий быть как переходным, так и непереходным в одном и том же значении)a verb that can be either transitive or intransitive in the same meaning. To use the verb intransitively, you use the object of the transitive verb as the subject of the intransitive verb; e.g. He had boiled a kettle… The kettle had boiled.
exclamation (восклицание)a word or sentence spoken suddenly and loudly in order to express surprise, anger, and so on; e.g. Oh gosh!
finite (личный)a finite verb is inflected according to person or tense rather than being an infinitive or a participle.
first person (первое лицо)see person.
focusing adverb (выделяющее наречие)a sentence adverb that indicates the most relevant thing involved; e.g. only, mainly, especially.
future (будущее время)the use of will or shall with the base form of the verb to refer to future events; e.g. She will come tomorrow.
future progressive (будущее длительное время)the use of will be or shall be and an -ing participle to refer to future events; e.g. She will be going soon. Also called future continuous.
future perfect (будущее совершенное время)the use of will have or shall have and an -ed participle to refer to future events; e.g. I shall have finished tomorrow.
future perfect progressive (будущее совершенное продолженное время)the use of will or shall with have been and an -ing participle to refer to future events; e.g. I will have been walking for three hours by then. Also called future perfect continuous.
gender (грамматический род)a grammatical term referring to the difference between masculine and feminine words such as he and she.
generic pronoun (местоимение, обозначающее людей)one of a group of pronouns including you and they which are used to refer to people in general.
gerund (герундий)another name for -ing noun.
gradable (градуированное прилагательное)a gradable adjective can be used with a word such as very to say that the person or thing referred to has more or less of a quality; e.g. very boring, less helpful.
idiom (идиоматическое выражение)a group of two or more words with a meaning that cannot be understood by taking the meaning of each individual word; e.g. to kick the bucket, to run wild.
if-clause (условное предложение)a conditional clause; or a clause used to report a yes / no-question.
imperative (повелительное наклонение)a clause in the imperative has the base form of the verb without a subject, e.g. Come hereTake two tablets every four hoursEnjoy yourself.
impersonal it (безличное «it»)it is an impersonal subject when it is used to introduce a fact, or when it is used in a split sentence; e.g. It’s rainingIt was you who asked.
indefinite article (неопределенный артикль)the determiners a and an.
indefinite determiner (нечеткое определяющее слово)one of a group of determiners including a, many and several which you use to refer to someone or something of a particular type, without saying which person or thing you mean; e.g. an old man, several suggestions.
indefinite place adverb (наречие неопределенного места)one of a group of adverbs including anywhere and somewhere which are used to indicate position or location in a general or vague way.
indefinite pronoun (неопределенное местоимение)one of a group of pronouns including someone and anything which are used to refer to a person or thing in a general way.
indicative (изъявительное наклонение)another name for declarative.
indirect object (косвенное дополнение)a second object used with a transitive verb to indicate who or what benefits from an action, or gets something as a result of it; e.g. She gave me a rose.
indirect question (косвенный вопрос)another name for reported question.
indirect speech (косвенная речь)another name for reported speech.
infinitive (неопределенная форма глагола)the base form of a verb. It is often used with to in front of it; e.g. (to) take, (to) see, (to) bring.
infinitive without to (инфинитив без частицы «to»)the infinitive form without to in front of it, used with modals and certain other verbs; e.g. You must goLet me think.
inflection (словоизменение)the variation in the form of a word to show differences in tense, number, case, and degree.
-ing adjective («инговое» прилагательное)an adjective that has the same form as the -ing participle of a verb; e.g.… a smiling facea winning streak.
-ing participle («инговое» причастие)a verb form ending in -ing that is used to make verb forms, and as an adjective. Also called the present participle.
-ing noun («инговое» существительное)a noun that has the same form as the -ing participle of a verb; e.g. Swimming is good for you.
interjection (восклицание)another name for exclamation.
interrogative adverb (вопросительное наречие)one of the adverbs how, when, where, and why when they are used to ask questions.
interrogative (вопросительное слово)a clause in the interrogative form has part or all of the verb phrase in front of the subject. Most questions are asked in the interrogative form.
interrogative pronoun (вопросительное местоимение)one of the pronouns who, whose, whom, what, and which when they are used to ask questions.
intransitive verb (непереходный глагол)a verb that is used to talk about an action or event that only involves the subject and so does not have an object; e.g. She arrived… I was yawning.
inversion (обратный порядок слов)changing the word order in a sentence, especially changing the order of the subject and the verb.
irregular (нерегулярно образованный)not following the normal rules for inflection. An irregular verb has a past form and/or -ed participle that is formed in a different way from the regular ending.
lexical verb (полнозначный глагол)another name for main verb.
linking verb (глагол-связка)a verb that links the subject and complement of a clause; e.g. be, become, seem, appear. Also sometimes called copula.
main clause (главное предложение)a clause that is not dependent on, or is not part of, another clause.
main verb (смысловой глагол)any verb that is not an auxiliary verb. Also called lexical verb.
mass noun (вещественное существительное)(in this grammar) a noun that is usually an uncountable noun, but that can be used as a countable noun when it refers to quantities or types of something; e.g.… two sugarscough medicines.
measurement noun (мерное существительное)a noun that refers to a unit of size, volume, weight, speed, temperature, etc.; e.g. mile, litre, degree.
modal (модальный)an auxiliary verb that is used with a main verb to indicate a particular attitude, such as possibility, obligation, prediction, or deduction; e.g. can, could, may, might. Also called modal auxiliary or modal verb.
modifier (определение)a word or group of words that come in front of a noun; e.g.… a beautiful sunny daya psychology conference.
negative (отрицательное предложение)used for describing a sentence that uses a word like not, never, or no one to indicate the absence or opposite of something, or to say that something is not the case; e.g. I don’t know you… I’ll never forget. The opposite is affirmative.
negative word (отрицание)a word such as never and not which expresses a negative meaning.
nominal relative clause (именное придаточное относительное)a subordinate clause that functions as a noun and often begins with what or whatever; e.g. What he said was true.
nominal that-clause (придаточное предложение с союзом «that»)a subordinate clause that functions as a noun and begins with that; e.g. He showed that it was true.
non-defining relative clause (распространительное придаточное предложение)a relative clause that gives more information about someone or something, but that is not needed to identify them; e.g. That’s Mary, who was at university with me. Compare with defining relative clause.
non-finite (неличный)the non-finite forms of a verb are the infinitive and participle forms; e.g. to take, taking, taken.
noun (существительное)a word that refers to people, things, and abstract ideas such as feelings and qualities; e.g. woman, Harry, guilt.
noun phrase (именная конструкция)a group of words that acts as the subject, complement, or object of a clause, or as the object of a preposition.
noun modifier (существительное-определение)a noun used in front of another noun, as if it were an adjective; e.g.… a car door… a steel works.
number (число)the way in which differences between singular and plural are shown; e.g. flower/ flowers, that/those. See also cardinal number and ordinal number.
object (дополнение)a noun phrase that refers to a person or thing, other than the subject, which is involved in or affected by the action of a verb. See also direct object and indirect object. Prepositions are also followed by objects.
object complement (дополнение)a word that is used to describe the object of a clause and that occurs with verbs such as make and find; e.g. It made me tiredI found her asleep.
ordinal number (порядковое числительное)a number that is used to indicate where something comes in an order or sequence; e.g. first, fifth, tenth, hundredth.
participle (причастие, деепричастие)a verb form used for making different tenses. See -ed participle and -ing participle for more details.
partitive (мерное слово)a word that gives information about the amount of a particular thing; e.g. pint, loaf, portion.
passive (страдательный залог)verb forms such as was given, were taken, had been made, where the subject is the person or thing that is affected by the action. Compare with active.
past form (прошедшая форма глагола)the form of a verb, often ending in -ed, that is used for the past simple.
past participle (причастие прошедшего времени, причастие II)another name for -ed participle.
past perfect (прошедшее совершенное, перфектное время)the use of had with an -ed participle to refer to past events; e.g. She had finished.
past perfect progressive (прошедшее совершенное продолженное время)the use of had been with an -ing participle to refer to past events; e.g. He had been waiting for hours. Also called past perfect continuous.
past progressive (прошедшее продолженное время)the use of was or were with an -ing participle, usually to refer to past events; e.g. They were worrying about it yesterday. Also called past continuous.
past simple (прошедшее неопределенное время)the use of the past form of a verb to refer to past events; e.g. They waitedIt fell over.
past tense (прошедшее время)a tense used to describe actions or events that took place in the past. See tense for more details.
perfect form (перфектная форма)a verb form with have and an -ed participle; e.g. I have met him… We had won.
performative verb (перформативный глагол)a verb that states explicitly what action the speaker is performing when he or she uses it; e.g. apologize, resign, christen.
performer (исполнитель)the person or thing that is responsible for the action expressed by the verb; e.g. Mark phoned… Our dinner was eaten by the dog.
person (лицо)a term used to refer to the three classes of people who are involved in something that is said. They are the first person (the person speaking or writing), the second person (the person being addressed), and the third person (the people or things that are being talked about).
personal pronoun (личное местоимение)one of a group of pronouns including I, you, and me which are used to refer back to the people or things you are talking about.
phrasal verb (фразовый глагол)a combination of a verb and an adverb and/or a preposition, which have a single meaning; e.g. back down, hand over, look after, look forward to.
phrase (грамматический оборот)a set of words that is smaller than a clause, and that is based around a particular word class: for example, a verb phrase is based around a main verb, and can also contain auxiliary verbs. See also noun phrase, verb phrase and prepositional phrase. Phrase is also sometimes used to refer to any group of words.
plural (множественное число)the form used to refer to more than one person or thing; e.g. dogs, women.
plural noun (существительное во множественном числе)a noun that is only used in the plural form; e.g. trousers, scissors, vermin.
possessive (притяжательный падеж)a structure used to show possession; e.g. your, Jerry’s, mine.
possessive determiner (слово в притяжательном падеже)a determiner such as my, your, and their. Also called possessive adjective.
possessive pronoun (притяжательное местоимение)one of the words mine, yours, hers, his, ours, and theirs.
postdeterminer (слово-определение после слова в притяжательном падеже, но перед другим словом-определением)a small group of adjectives used after a determiner and in front of other adjectives; e.g. certain, remaining.
predeterminer (слово-определение перед словом в притяжательном падеже)a word that comes in front of a determiner; e.g. all the boysdouble the troublesuch a mess.
predicative (именная часть составного сказуемого)used for describing the position of adjectives when they are used after a linking verb such as ‘be’. Compare with attributive.
preposition (предлог)a word such as by, with or from, which is usually followed by a noun phrase or an -ing form.
prepositional phrase (предложный оборот)a structure consisting of a preposition and its object; e.g. on the table, by the sea.
present participle (причастие настоящего времени, причастие I)another name for -ing participle.
present progressive (настоящее длительное время)the use of the present simple of ‘be’ with an -ing participle to refer to present events; e.g. Things are improving. Also called present continuous.
present perfect (настоящее совершенное время)the use of the present simple of have with an -ed participle to refer to past events that exist in the present; e.g. She has loved him for ten years.
present perfect progressive (настоящее совершенное продолженное время)the use of have been and has been with an -ing participle to refer to past events that exist in the present; e.g. We have been sitting here for hours. Also called present perfect continuous.
present simple (настоящее неопределенное время)the use of the base form or the s form of a verb, usually to refer to present events; e.g. I like bananas… My sister hates them.
present tense (настоящее время)a tense used to describe events taking place in the present, or situations that exist in the present.
progressive (длительная форма глагола)a verb form that contains a form of the verb ‘be’ and an -ing participle; e.g. She was laughingThey had been playing badminton. Also called continuous.
pronoun (местоимение)a word used instead of a noun, when you do not want to name someone or something directly; e.g. it, you, none.
proper noun (имя собственное)a noun that refers to a particular person, place, or institution; e.g. Nigel, Edinburgh, Christmas. Compare with common noun.
purpose clause (придаточное цели)a subordinate clause, usually introduced by in order to, or so that; e.g. I came here in order to ask you out to dinner.
qualifier (определитель)any word, phrase, or clause that comes after a noun phrase, and gives extra information to expand its meaning; e.g.… a book with a blue cover… the shop on the corner.
qualitative adjective (качественное прилагательное)an adjective that is used to indicate a quality, and is gradable; e.g. funny, intelligent, small. Compare with classifying adjective.
quantity expression (количественное выражение)a phrase ending in of that allows you to refer to a quantity of something without being precise about the exact amount; e.g. some of, a lot of, a little bit of.
question (вопрос)a structure that typically has the verb in front of the subject and that is used to ask someone about something; e.g. Have you any money? Also called interrogative.
question tag (тэг, «хвост», краткий общий вопрос в конце расчленненного вопроса)a structure consisting of an auxiliary verb followed by a pronoun, which is used at the end of a statement in order to form a question.
reason clause (придаточное причины)a subordinate clause, usually introduced by because, since, or as; e.g. Since you’re here, we’ll start.
reciprocal pronoun (взаимное местоимение)the pronouns each other and one another, used to show that two or more people do or feel the same thing; e.g. They loved each other.
reciprocal verb (взаимный глагол)a verb that describes an action that involves people affecting each other in the same way with the same action; e.g. They met in the street… He met her yesterday.
reflexive pronoun (возвратное местоимение)a pronoun ending in -self, such as myself or themselves, which is used as the object of a verb when the person affected by an action is the same as the person doing it.
reflexive verb (возвратный глагол)a verb that is typically used with a reflexive pronoun; e.g. enjoy yourself; pride yourself on.
relative clause (определительное придаточное предложение)a subordinate clause that gives more information about someone or something mentioned in the main clause. See also defining relative clause and non-defining relative clause.
relative pronoun (относительное местоимение)a wh-word such as who or which, used to introduce a relative clause; e.g.… the girl who was carrying the bag.
reported clause (придаточное дополнительное в косвенной речи)the part of a reporting structure that describes what someone has said; e.g. She said that I couldn’t see her.
reported question (косвенный вопрос)a question that is reported using a reporting structure rather than the exact words used by the speaker. Also called indirect question.
reported speech (косвенная речь)speech that is reported using a reporting structure rather than the exact words used by the speaker. Also called indirect speech.
reporting clause (главное предложение в косвенной речи)a clause that contains a reporting verb, which is used to introduce what someone has said; e.g. They asked if I could come.
reporting verb (глагол в главном предложении в косвенной речи)a verb that describes what people say or think; e.g. suggest, say, wonder.
reporting structure (пояснительное придаточное в косвенной речи, «чужая речь»)a structure that reports what someone has said by using a reported clause rather than repeating their exact words; e.g. She told me she’d be late.
result clause (придаточное следствия)a subordinate clause introduced by so that which gives the result of something; e.g. The house was severely damaged, so that it is now uninhabitable.
rhetorical question (риторический вопрос)a question that you use in order to make a comment rather than to obtain information; e.g. Oh, isn’t it silly?
second person (второе лицо)see person.
semi-modal (полумодальный глагол)the verbs dare, need, and used to which behave rather like modals.
sentence (предложение)a group of words that express a statement, question, or command. A sentence usually has a verb and a subject, and may consist of one clause, or two or more clauses. A sentence in writing has a capital letter at the beginning and a full-stop, question mark, or exclamation mark at the end.
sentence adverbial (сентенциальная наречная составляющая)an adverbial that applies to the whole clause, rather than to part of it; e.g. We possibly have to wait and see. See also sentence connector.
sentence connector (лексический элемент соединитель предложений)a sentence adverbial used to introduce a comment or reinforce what is said; e.g. moreover, besides.
s formthe base form of a verb with s on the end, used in the present simple.
simple sentence (простое предложение)a sentence that contains only one clause.
singular (единственное число)the form used to refer to or talk about one person or thing; e.g. dog, woman. Compare with plural.
singular noun (существительное, имеющее только единственное число)a noun typically used in the singular form; e.g. sun, business.
split infinitive (инфинитив с отделенной частицей «to»)the placing of a word between to and the base form of a verb; e.g.… to boldly go where no man has gone before.
split sentence («разорванное» предложение)a sentence in which emphasis is given to either the subject or the object by using a structure beginning with it, what, or all; e.g. It’s a hammer we needWhat we need is a hammer.
stative verb (глагол состояния, неконтиниусный глагол)a verb that describes a state; e.g. be, live, know. Compare with dynamic verb.
subject (подлежащее)a noun phrase that usually comes before a verb, and agrees with the verb in person and number. In active sentences, the subject usually refers to the person or thing who does the action expressed by the verb; e.g. We were going shopping.
subjunctive (сослагательное наклонение)a verb form that is used in some languages to express attitudes such as wishing, hoping, and doubting. The subjunctive is not very common in English, and is used mainly in conditional clauses such as If I were you….
submodifying adverb (наречие перед другим наречием или прилагательным)an adverb that is used in front of an adjective or another adverb in order to strengthen or weaken its meaning; e.g.… very interestingquite quickly.
subordinate clause (зависимое предложение)a clause that begins with a subordinating conjunction such as because or while and which must be used with a main clause.
subordinating conjunction (подчинительный союз)a conjunction that begins a subordinate clause.
substitution (замещение)the special use of pronouns and other words to replace part or all of a clause; e.g. ‘Are you going to the party?’ — ‘I hope so’.
superlative (прилагательное или наречие в превосходной степени)an adjective or adverb with -est on the end or most in front of it; e.g. thinnest, quickest, most wisely.
tense (грамматическое время)the verb form that shows whether you are referring to the past or the present.
that-clausea clause starting with ‘that’ which is used mainly when reporting what someone has said; e.g. She said that she’d wash up for me. That can be omitted when the clause is used after a reporting verb.
third person (третье лицо)see person.
time adverbial (обстоятельство времени)an adverbial that gives more information about when something happens; e.g. I saw her yesterday.
time clause (придаточное предложение времени)a subordinate clause that indicates the time of an event; e.g. I’ll phone you when I get back.
title (титул)a word used before a person’s name to show their position or status; e.g. Mrs, Lord, Queen.
to-infinitive (инфинитив с частицей «to»)the base form of a verb preceded by to; e.g. to go, to have, to jump.
transitive verb (переходный глагол)a verb used to talk about an action or event that involves more than one person or thing, and so is followed by an object; e.g. She’s wasting her money.
uncountable noun (неисчисляемое существительное)a noun that refers to a  a general kind of thing rather than to an individual item, and so has only one form; e.g. money, furniture, intelligence. Also called uncount noun.
verb (глагол)a word used with a subject to say what someone or something does, or what happens to them; e.g. sing, spill, die.
verb phrase (глагольная конструкция)a main verb, or a main verb preceded by one or more auxiliary verbs, which combines with a subject to say what someone or something does, or what happens to them; e.g. I’ll show them… She’ s been sick.
vocative (звательный, относящийся к обращениям)a word used when speaking to someone, just as if it were their name; e.g. darling, madam.
wh-clause (придаточное относительное)a clause starting with a wh-word.
whether-clause (косвенный вопрос «ли-»)a clause used to report a yes/no-question; e.g. I asked her whether she’d seen him.
wh-question (специальный вопрос)a question that expects an answer giving a particular person, place, thing, amount, and so on, rather than just yes or no.
wh-word (вопросительное слово или союз, начинающийся с «wh»)one of a group of words starting with wh-, such as what, when or who, which are used in wh-questions. How is also called a wh-word because it behaves like the other wh-words.
yes/no-question (общий вопрос)a question that can be answered simply with either yes or no; e.g. Would you like some more tea?


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