Фразовые глаголы

Значение фразового глагола отличается от значения глагола без послелога, например, «look» — «глядеть», но «look up» — «просматривать».

Содержание

Основы

Фразовый глагол состоит из глагола и послелога.

ГлаголПослелогПримерЗначение
lookupYou can look up any new words in your dictionary.You can find the meaning of any new words in your dictionary.
getthroughI tried to phone her but I couldn’t get through.I tried to phone her but I couldn’t get a connection.
makeoutI just can’t make Jim out at all.I just can’t understand Jim’s behaviour.

Послелог — это наречие или предлог: about / (a)round / at / away / back / down / for / in / into / off / on / out / over / through / to / up

Значение фразового глагола отличается от значения глагола без послелога, например, look — «глядеть», но look up — «просматривать».

Шаблоны

Помните шаблоны — с каким дополнением (объектом) может или не может сочетаться каждый фразовый глагол:

ШаблонПояснениеПример
eat outбез дополненияWe were too tired to cook at home so we decided to eat out. [eat in a restaurant]
Not: We decided to eat out a meal.
bring back smth. or bring smth. backс неодушевленным объектомThis photograph brings back happy memories. [makes me remember or think about something from the past]
Not: This photograph brings back my sister.
ask out smb. or ask smb. outс одушевленным объектомI’d love to ask Sally out. [invite Sally to go to a place like a cinema or a restaurant]
Not: I’d love to ask my dog out.
look after smb. / smth.либо с одушевленным, либо с неодушевленным объектомI’ll look after the baby while you’re cooking.
Will you look after my bike while I’m away?
ring smb. backс одушевленным объектом перед послелогомI’ll ring you back later. [phone you again]
Not: I’ll ring back you.
look after smb. / smth.с одушевленным объектом после послелогаCan you look after the dog while I’m away?
Not: Can you look the dog after while I’m away?
drop off smb. / smth. or drop smb. / smth. offс одушевленным или неодушевленным объектом перед или после послелогаI dropped off the package at her house.
I dropped the package off at her house.

Распространенные глаголы (break / bring / call / come / cut / get / give / go / keep / knock / look / make / pass / pick / pull / put / run / set / take / turn) могут образовывать фразовые глаголы.

Послелоги

Некоторые фразовые глаголы имеют послелоги с очевидным значением:

ПримерЗначение
Jack invited me out. Let’s go out together.
Rosie invited me in.Please come in!
Jill invited me over. Come to our place.
Paul invited me round.Come to my house for dinner or a drink.
Mark invited me up.Come upstairs to my flat.
Susie invited me along.Come with us!
Bill invited me back.Come back home with me.

Послелоги означают:

  • смену позиции — fall over
  • тщательность и законченность — read over

Послелог может стоять:

  • Перед дополнением — I’m looking for my keys (not: I’m looking my keys for)
  • После дополнения — have a lot of work on (not: I have on a lot of work)
  • Перед или после дополнения — The thunder woke up the children / The thunder woke the children up
  • Только после дополнения, если дополнение выражено местоимением — The thunder woke them up (not: The thunder woke up them)

Значение

Фразовые глаголы могут иметь несколько значений:

ПримерЗначение
He got on the bus. entered the bus
Jim and Ian get on really well. like each other and are friendly
Shh! I’m trying to get on with my work. continue doing my work

Фразовые глаголы могут иметь прямое и непрямое значение.

ГлаголПрямое значениеНепрямое значение
giveI gave my essay in yesterday. [handed it to the teacher]Her parents finally gave in and let her go to the party. [agreed to something they had refused before]
getShe got on the bus. [entered]Jim and Mary don’t get on. [don’t like each other and are not friendly to each other]
comeWould you like to come round this evening? [come to my home]He was unconscious for three hours but came round in hospital. [became conscious again]

Базовое значение фразового глагола может превратиться в метафору:

Пример
blow up a balloon
blow up a building
someone blows up

Некоторые фразовые глаголы используются только в качестве метафоры:

ПримерЗначение
These statistics look strange. Have we slipped up somewhere?Here slip up [make a mistake] clearly comes from slip [fall usually because the floor is wet or the ground is icy]

В разных регионах могут употребляться разные фразовые глаголы для одной и той же ситуации:

British, AmericanAustralian
clear up the roomtidy up the room

Синонимы

Фразовые глаголы могут иметь синоним в виде одного слова — сильной лексемы.

Фразовый глаголЛексема
put offpostpone
take offremove
turn uparrive

Любопытно, что для разговорной речи характерно употребление фразовых глаголов, а в формальной речи — сильных лексем.

НеформльноФормально
Let’s put off the meeting until Friday.Let’s postpone the meeting until Friday.
Please take off your shoes when you enter the temple.Please remove your shoes when you enter the temple.
Everyone turned up on time for the meeting.Everyone arrived on time for the meeting.

Существительные от фразовых глаголов

На базе фразового глагола можно образовывать существительные:

Фразовый глаголСуществительное
Tom: I got ripped off when I phoned that 0877 number [informal: was charged too much]. The call cost five pounds a minute! Lily: Yes, those numbers are a big rip-off.
Mona: Her son dropped out of college last year. [gave up his course]Ed: Mm. There were a lot of dropouts that year. I wonder why?
Mick: Somebody broke in last night and stole a computer from the school. [entered by force to steal something]Pat: Really? That’s the second break-in this year!

Обратите внимание:

break-ins, dropouts, rip-offs (not: breaks in, dropsout, rips-off)

Но:

goings-on [strange or amusing events] — There was a lot of gossip about the goings-on at the office party

Существительные от фразовых глаголов с -out / -over обычно пишутся без дефиса перед частицей:

dropout / lookout / checkout / handout / changeover / leftovers

Существительные от фразовых глаголов с -in / -up / -down / -through обычно пишутся через дефис.

Существительные, образованные от фарзовых глаголов с послелогом впереди, имеют ударение на первом слоге.

Фразовый глаголСуществительноеПример
set outoutsetI knew from the outset that there would be problems. [beginning]
fall downdownfallThe economic crisis caused the downfall of the government. [sudden failure or end]
look ononlookerCrowds of onlookers watched as the police arrested the man. [someone who watches an event but doesn’t take part]

От фразовых глаголов могут быть также образованы прилагательные — a broken-down vehicle

Come

Фразовый глаголЗначениеПример
come alongarrive at a placeNot many people bought tickets for the concert in advance, but quite a few came along and bought tickets at the door.
come apartseparate into piecesThe antique picture frame just came apart in my hands.
come around or come roundbecome conscious againA nurse was with me when I came round after the operation.
come outdisappear or become less strong (of dirt or colour on clothing / material)Let your shirt soak overnight and the stain will probably come out.
come outbecome public knowledge after it has been kept secret (of the truth)If this story comes out about the Prime Minister, he’ll have to resign.
come outbe given to people (of results or information)When do your exam results come out?
come outleave after a period in a place (of hospital / prison)Jane’s coming out of hospital at the weekend. She’s much better now.

Get

Фразовый глаголыЗначениеПример
get together (often + with) get on (often + with)If two or more people get together, they meet in order to do something or spend time together. If two or more people get on, they like each other and are friendly to each other.It’s nice to get together with people you get on with.
get on (often + with) get behind (often + with)continue doing something, especially work If you get behind with work or with payments, you have not done as much work or paid as much as you should by a particular time.I must get on with my work. I got behind because I spent too much time on the Internet.
get smth. over with get awaydo and complete something difficult or unpleasant that must be done leave a place or person, often when the situation makes it difficult for you to do soLet’s get this meeting over with, or else we’ll never get away before the rush hour and it will take ages to get home.
can’t / couldn’t get over smth. get away with smth. / doing smth.be very surprised or shocked that something has happened or that something is true succeed in not being criticised or punished for something wrong that you have doneI can’t get over how she manages to get away with doing so little work. It’s obvious to everyone, but the boss never seems to notice.

With

Фразовый глаголЗначениеПример
could do with smb. / smth.need or want something or someone (informal)I could do with a cup of tea.
deal with smth.if something [e.g. book, film, article] deals with a particular subject or idea, it is about that subject or ideaHis latest book deals with the civil war of 1984—1989.
stick with itcontinue doing something even though it is difficult (informal)I know studying for a PhD is hard, but I think you should stick with it.
go with smth.if one thing goes with another, they suit each other or they look or taste good togetherThat shirt goes really well with your blue jacket.
put up with smb. / smth.accept unpleasant behaviour or an unpleasant situation, even though you do not like itI don’t know how she puts up with his bad temper.
catch up with smb.meet someone you know, after not seeing them for a period of timeI hope to catch up with Freda when I’m in Berlin. I haven’t seen her for years.

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