Russia-Ukraine War Conflict

“My definition of a free society is a society where it is safe to be unpopular.” (Adlai Stevenson, United Nations ambassador 1961—1965)

Содержание

Illustration / Иллюстрация

Illustration / Иллюстрация

Vocabulary

ФразаПеревод
pull back forcesотводить войска

On 18 February, President Poroshenko announces that 80% of Ukrainian forces have pulled back from the town towards Artemivsk.

ФразаПеревод
an eyewitnessочевидец
weary troopsизмотанные войска
to retreatотступать
a high-rise buildingвысотное здание
a footageвидеозапись

Eyewitnesses report dozens of tanks and columns of weary troopsretreating, while a Russian TV station shows footage of what it says is arebel flag being raised on a high-rise building in the town.

ФразаПеревод
ceasefireпрекращение огня
a heavy fightingтяжелые бои
rebel forcesотряды повстанцев
a strategically important road andrail hubстратегически важный транспортный узел
to join up territory heldприсоединить к подконтрольным территориям

Despite the ceasefire, heavy fighting continues around Debaltseve withrebel forces pressing to capture the strategically important road andrail hub, to join up territory held in Donetsk and Luhansk regions.

ФразаПеревод
a buffer zoneбуферная зона
heavy weaponsтяжелое оружие
rival forcesпротивоборствующие стороны

The pro-Russian rebels in eastern Ukraine also sign the agreement whichincludes a buffer zone for heavy weapons, with a minimum of 50km (30miles) between rival forces’ artillery (140km for rockets).

ФразаПеревод
after marathon talksв результате длительных переговоров
to end the fightingпрекратить боевые действия
a weapon withdrawalвывод боевой техники
a prisoner exchangeобмен пленными
key issuesосновные вопросы
to settleурегулировать

On 12 February—after marathon talks in the Belaruscapital, Minsk, an agreement is reached to end the fighting. The leadersof Russia, Ukraine, Germany and France announce that a ceasefire willbegin on 15 February. The deal also includes weapon withdrawals andprisoner exchanges, but key issues remain to be settled.

ФразаПеревод
clashesстолкновения
a renewed diplomatic pushвозобновленные дипломатические усилия
truceзатишье
civiliansмирные жители

As clashes continue there is a renewed diplomatic push to end thefighting. Meanwhile, a truce allows civilians to leave Debaltseve.

ФразаПеревод
fiercest fightingжаркие бои
to surround troopsблокировать войска
a crucial rail hubважный железнодорожный узел

The fiercest fighting is near the town of Debaltseve, where the rebelsare trying to surround Ukrainian troops. The town is a crucial rail hublinking Donetsk and Luhansk.

ФразаПеревод
offensiveнаступательная операция

The rebels continue their offensive in February.

ФразаПеревод
to resupply allowingmunitions, hardware and manpowerпополнить боеприпасы, технику и личный состав
to airliftперебрасывать по воздуху
a conflictzoneзона конфликта
drone imagesснимки с беспилотника
to devastateразрушать

There are fears its capture could help the rebels to resupply—allowingmunitions, hardware and manpower to be airlifted into the conflictzone. But drone images of the airport taken in January show howdevastated the terminal building is.

ФразаПеревод
a bitter fightingожесточенные бои
to shell rebel positionsобстреливать позиции повстанцев
the militantsбоевики

On 22 January, Ukrainian forces withdraw from Donetsk airport’s main terminal, after weeks of bitter fighting. The airport is strategically important. Government forces had been able to shell rebel positions inside nearby Donetsk—the largest city held by the militants.

ФразаПеревод
the armyправительственные войска
the rebelsмятежники
to be battle for new groundсражаться за новые территории
negotiating positionпозиция на переговорах
ahead ofв преддверии

In January 2015, fighting between the army and the rebels intensifies in and around Donetsk, as well as in Luhansk region. Both sides seem to be battling for new ground, keen to strengthen their negotiating positions ahead of any “peace summit”.

ФразаПеревод
to scrap a lawпересмотреть закон
the 5September truceобъявленное 5 сентября перемирие

Two pro-Russian leaders are declared the winners—but President PetroPoroshenko immediately threatens to scrap a law (agreed under the 5September truce) which gave special status to Donetsk and Luhansk.

ФразаПеревод
to vote for a new parliamentизбрать новый парламент
Pro-West partiesпро-западные партии
to triumphпраздновать победу
the rebel-held eastудерживаемый повстанцами восток
to hold electionsпроводить выборы

On 26 October Ukrainians vote for a new parliament. Pro-West parties triumph but the polls are boycotted in the rebel-held east—which goes on to hold its own elections on 2 November.

ФразаПеревод
to violateнарушать
to eruptвспыхнуть

A ceasefire is agreed on 5 September between Ukraine and the pro-Russian rebels in the east. Signed in Minsk, Belarus, it is violated just four days later when fierce fighting erupts around Donetsk airport.

ФразаПеревод
remaining in controlсохраняющий контроль
closed to flightsзакрыт для полетов

The battle for the airport continues with the Ukrainians remaining in control, although it is now so badly damaged that it is closed to flights.

ФразаПеревод
elsewhereв других местах
a violation of the truceнарушение перемирия
a stretch alongполоса вдоль

Elsewhere in the east there are repeated violations of the truce. By 19 September, the rebels control a stretch along the Russian border to the coast.

ФразаПеревод
to make gainsпродвигаться
allegedlyпо неофициальной информации
heavy armourтяжелая броня
to open up a new frontоткрыть новый фронт
on the coastна побережье
to seize the townзахватить город
to threatenпредставлять собой опасность

Ukrainian forces make gains in some areas previously held by the rebels. But on 27 August the rebels—allegedly backed by Russian heavy armour—open up a new front on the coast, seizing the town of Novoazovsk and threatening the strategic port city of Mariupol.

ФразаПеревод
to allowпредоставлять
a well-trained volunteerхорошо обученный доброволец
heavy weaponsтяжелое оружие
to dismiss accusationsотмести обвинения
to join the rebel causeпринять сторону мятежников

Ukraine insists Russian regular forces are involved in the fighting in Ukraine. It also accuses the Russian authorities of allowing well-trained volunteers and heavy weapons to cross the border to help the rebels. Russia dismisses those accusations, yet the rebel leader in Donetsk says many Russian soldiers have joined the rebel cause.

ФразаПеревод
a crashавиационная катастрофа
death tollчисло погибших
a missileуправляемая ракета
to argue insteadвыдвинуть контробвинение
a fighter jetреактивный истребитель
an airlinerрейсовый авиалайнер

The crash kills 298 people—everybody aboard the airliner. TheNetherlands has the biggest death toll (196), then Malaysia (42) andAustralia (27). Western nations blame a Russian-supplied missile,believed to have been fired by rebels. Russia denies it had armed the rebels and argues instead that a Ukrainian fighter jet had flown near the airliner at the time.

ФразаПеревод
shot downсбит
a rebel-held territoryтерритория под контролем повстанцев

On 17 July Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 from Amsterdam is shot down near the village of Grabove, in rebel-held territory close to the border with Russia.

ФразаПеревод
to abandon strongholdsоставить укрепления
insurgencyмятежные действия

With a government offensive launched once more, on 5 July rebels abandon strongholds in the north of Donetsk region, withdrawing to a smaller area of insurgency in the south.

ФразаПеревод
to announce a peace planобъявить план мирного урегулирования

On 20 June, President Poroshenko announces a 15-point peace plan and declares a week-long truce. It holds for a few days until a military helicopter is shot down over eastern Ukraine.

ФразаПеревод
“confectionery tycoon”«шоколадный король»
a polling stationизбирательный участок

Elections for a new president in Ukraine are held on 25 May, resulting in confectionery tycoon Petro Poroshenko being elected with more than 55% of the vote, although no polling stations were open in Donetsk city and several other locations.

ФразаПеревод
a build-upсосредоточение
on the shared borderна общей границе
annexationаннексия территории

On 11 May pro-Russian separatists in Donetsk and Luhansk declare independence as “people’s republics” after the referendums, which were not recognised by Kiev or the West. A build-up of Russian troops on the shared border in April sparks concern that another annexation could take place.

ФразаПеревод
to retakeпересдать
to grantпредоставлять

On 7 April, protesters occupy government buildings in the eastern cities of Donetsk, Luhansk and Kharkiv. Although Kharkiv is retaken the following day, the occupations spread to other cities, and a number of pro-Russian leaders declare that referendums on granting greater autonomy to eastern regions will be held.

ФразаПеревод
to withdraw fromоставить
a troops gatheringскопление войск
in border areas adjacentв приграничных районах, прилегающих
an industrial heartlandсердце индустрии страны

After Ukrainian troops withdraw from Crimea, there are reports of many Russian troops gathering in border areas adjacent to the eastern regions of Donetsk and Luhansk, Ukraine’s industrial heartland.

ФразаПеревод
referendum votersучастники референдума
leaked documentsпросочившаяся информация
to condemnосуждать
to impose a first round of sanctionsвводить первый пакет санкций
officialsчиновники
high-rankingвысокопоставленный

On 16 March, 97% of referendum voters reportedly back the proposal to join Russia. The figure is later disputed, with leaked documents showing only 50-60% support for the move. The EU and US condemn the annexation of Crimea and impose a first round of sanctions on Russian officials and high-ranking Moscow allies in Ukraine.

ФразаПеревод
gunmenбоевики
a legacyнаследие
involvement in the regionприсутствие в регионе
an insurgentбоец сил сопротивления

On 27—28 February, pro-Russian gunmen seize key buildings in the Crimean capital, Simferopol. The majority of Crimea’s 2.3 million population identify themselves as ethnic Russians and speak Russian—a legacy of Russia’s 200-year involvement in the region. Sevastopol in Crimea is also the historic base of Russia’s Black Sea Fleet. Within days, the Crimean parliament votes to join Russia and calls a referendum. Russia later admits that its military helped the Crimea insurgents.

ФразаПеревод
to remove the president from powerотстранить президента от власти
a police unitподразделение полиции
disbandedрасформированный

Parliament votes to remove the president from power, with elections set for 25 May. The elite Berkut police unit, blamed for deaths of protesters, is disbanded. Parliament also votes to ban Russian as the second official language, triggering a wave of anger in Russian-speaking regions—although the vote is later overturned.

ФразаПеревод
bloodshedкровопролитие

On 20 February, 2014, bloodshed reaches its worst since the start of the crisis. At least 88 people are killed in 48 hours in Kiev and hundreds wounded in clashes between protesters and police, including many shot by uniformed snipers. President Yanukovych disappears and protesters take control of government buildings.

ФразаПеревод
to turn deadlyобернуться жертвами
regional government officesрегиональные правительственные учреждения

In mid-January, parliament passes restrictive anti-protest laws as clashes turn deadly. Anti-Yanukovych protesters begin storming regional government offices in other parts of western Ukraine.

ФразаПеревод
outragedвозмущенный
estimatedприблизительный

Outraged by the move towards Moscow, anti-government demonstrations take place in Kiev with an estimated 100,000 on the streets. By December, some 800,000 people rally in the capital and protesters occupy city hall and Independence Square.

ФразаПеревод
an aspiration for integrationстремление к интеграции
predominantгосподствующий

Ukraine has been torn between east and west since the collapse of theSoviet Union in 1991. Ukrainian is the main language in western regions—where there is also a long-standing aspiration for integration withEurope. However, Russian is predominant in parts of the east and south.

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